top of page

Yogesh Pathak


As discussed earlier, we believe that eight-year olds have the right background to learn material through two long ‘stories’ – essentially natural history and man-nature relationship history.

The story of evolution and biodiversity should cover the following concepts/clusters:

  • How old is the solar system and Earth? What was the Earth like before the formation of early life?

  • Theories of how living beings got created on Earth.

  • The key periods in Earth's history after life happened, and associated life forms (preliminary)

  • Evolution: concepts, preliminary

  • Fossils and their variety

  • Evolution of birds as a more detailed example 

  • Examples of naturally extinct species: Dinosaurs

  • Evolution of man

  • Examples of extinction due to man’s interference: Mammoth and other large mammals


The story of man and nature’s relationship and human civilization should cover the following  concepts/clusters:

  • Homo Sapiens’ journey from the branching of our species in the tree of evolution, while we were exclusively hunter gatherers.

    • Collaboration among Sapiens

    • Coexistence with other hominins (preliminary, with Neanderthals as an example)

    • Early diet

    • Language

    • Clans

    • Tools: Stone age and variety of tools from stones and animal bones

    • Fire and it’s many applications

    • Settlements and the role of water bodies

    • Cooking

    • Simple machines

    • Impact of settlements and the need for firewood on forests

    • Impact of hunting on other species like small mammals, large mammals, birds

    • Art and it’s evidence in caves

    • Relevant fossils and other artefacts found

    • Migration of Sapiens across the globe

    • Potential myths/religion among early tribes

  • Our journey from hunter-gatherers to farmers, pastoralists, and today’s industrialized mode of living

    • Start of goat/cattle herding and start of agriculture

    • Domestication of animals

    • Early villages, cities

    • Communities, tribes and their norms and rules

    • Trade

    • Specialization of skills and vocations

    • Early social stratification

    • Pottery

    • Early housing

    • Start of culture and religion

    • Start of chiefdoms and kingdoms

    • Evolution of arts including beads, painted pottery

    • Evolution of monetary commerce (preliminary)

    • Evolution of science (early, preliminary) and technology: Metal use – Copper, Bronze, Iron, Gold, Silver

    • Wheel and it’s applications

    • Early transportation: On land, rivers, oceans, snow

    • Larger civilization along major rivers: Preliminary. Some examples of dams, farming, and trade

    • Middle ages, role of military in sustaining kingdoms and empires: Impact on nature e.g. wood for navy, hunting of mammals, firewood needs - Preliminary

    • Modern scientific discoveries and inventions: A quick journey

    • Steam engines, electricity, jet engines, globalization, hyper transportation, hyper construction, variety of man-made materials, energy use, information technology: Preliminary, along with impact of nature like pollution and change in land use

  • Modern-day hunter gatherers, tribal societies and their co-existence with farmers, pastoralists, and the industrial man


In addition, the following concepts should be covered in this year

  • Basic geographic understanding of their vicinity, town, and county or district.

  • Interpreting the map of their town and district, filling various details in the map, etc.

  • Relate the physical/climatic conditions in the district to the modes of living, vocations, and socio-cultural aspects.

  • Concept of Ecosystem (Preliminary)

  • Natural landscape as a mosaic of ecosystems

  • Mapping natural landscape(s) into the map of town/district  -- may not necessarily fit the map’s boundaries.

  • History of nature-man relationship to land, water, and forests (e.g. a river preceding human civilization, and human settlements happening along rivers) can be highlighted – mostly taking local examples from the district.

  • Story of evolution and story of man-nature relationship mapped on the local town/district

bottom of page